The Emergence and Challenges of Post-Liberation Pan-Hurutshe Renaissance in Southern Africa

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Christian John Makgala
Christopher Ntau


This paper examines the plight of the various Bahurutshe merafe (ethnic groups) found in the three
neighbouring Southern African countries of South Africa, Botswana and Namibia. It demonstrates
how the groups split from the original morafe (ethnic group) into various entities which experienced
varying vicissitudes of fate in the pre-colonial, colonial, and apartheid South Africa and Namibia.
The end of apartheid and the post-liberation period in South Africa saw various ethnic groups in the
three countries (and even Zimbabwe) engaging in a Renaissance movement characterized by holding
annual festivals for cross-border unity and preservation of their culture with a view for cultural or
heritage tourism. In this regard the Bahurutshe appeared on the scene by 2011, but before they could
consolidate their cross-border movement they lost their pioneering, pivotal, and dynamic coordinator, the Botswana-based Moses Lekaukau who died in 2015, and this robbed the movement the force
it needed going forward. Hence, it declined after a very short period.

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