Exploratory Study on Factors Associated with Stigmatisation of People Living With HIV/AIDS in Botswana

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Oluwayemisi Oyeronke Alaba
Raghumath Arnab
John Olaomi


Antiretroviral therapy has effectively changed Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) from a terminal to a manageable chronic illness. However, People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) still contend with stigmatisation, hostility and gossip which take their toll on their health and psychological well-being. This paper explores the factors responsible for stigmatisation of PLWHA. The 2008 Botswana Aids Impact Survey III (BAIS III) data was used to assess the attitudes of people to HIV/AIDS patients in Botswana using the generalized additive model. The model was used to simultaneously measure the fixed and nonlinear effects. The fixed effects of categorical covariates were modelled using the diffuse prior while P-spline with second-order random walk was considered for the nonlinear effect of continuous variable. The Binomial distribution was used to handle the dichotomous nature of the three dependent variables considered. The dependent variables considered are family member, teacher and a shopkeeper/food seller who live with HIV/AIDS. People who stay in the urban areas, who have secondary or higher education, above 25years of age, who are married, living together with partner and divorcees seem to be responsible for stigmatisation of the people considered based on the three dependent variables. Stigmatisation of PLWHA in Botswana is significantly associated with the elite and adults.


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Author Biographies

Oluwayemisi Oyeronke Alaba, Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Statistics, Lecturer 1

Raghumath Arnab, Department of Statistics, University of Botswana

Statistics and Professor

John Olaomi, Department of statistics, University of South Africa

Statistics and Professor