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From time immemorial, communities used traditional trees, herbs and shrubs to cure ailments in livestock and humans. With advent of modern medicine, rural communities continued to rely on traditional medicine. The need to integrate traditional medicine into conventional health care system needs strong support and validation by research. The research should provide information on safety and quality for use to train traditional medicine practitioners. This will promote conservation and sustainable use of plants. In Southern African, livestock farmers are still using traditional plants for livestock ailments and to control parasites. Use of ethnomedicine would reduce costs of veterinary care and open opportunities for further research. It will also open opportunities for collaboration since plants and their use is common in the region. Teaching of natural product chemistry in tertiary education would be contextualised. Institutions with the right mix of scientists to carry the proposed research are currently present in Botswana.