Prevalence of some gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in southern Botswana

surender pal sharma

Abstract


 The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep and goats by conducting a parasitological survey on 16 livestock farms. In all, a total of 465 faecal samples of 131 dairy calves, 94 beef calves,143 goat kids and 97 lambs aged ≤ 6 months were examined using Modified McMaster technique. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigen,. The results of the parasitological survey showed helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates of10.7 ± 2.7% and 13 ± 2.9% in dairy calves, 8.5 ± 2.9% and 10.6 ± 3.2% in beef calves, 21 ± 3.4% and 13.3 ± 2.8% in goat kids, 24.7 ± 4.4% and 11.3 ± 3.2% in lambs, respectively. Animals excreting soft to liquid faeces showed 34.8 ± 4% combined helminthic and Eimeria species infection rates compared to 24.4 ± 2.4% in animals with normal solid excreta and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).. Animals aged ≤ 3 months and 3 to 6 months exhibited combined helminthic and coccidial infection rates of 12 ± 2.1% and 20.6 ± 2.6%, respectively. Percent Cryptosporidium parvum infection rates were 25.2 ± 3.8, 12.8 ± 3.4, 12.4 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 2.6 in dairy calves, beef calves, lambs and goat kids, respectively. Significantly greater Cryptosporidium infection rate (P < 0.05) was recorded in dairy calves than beef calves, goat kids and lambs.  C. parvum  infection rates were 28.4 ± 3.8% and 20.7± 2.7% in diarrhoeic and younger (≤3 months) animals in comparison to 9.9 ± 1.7% and 10.3± 2% in non-diarrhoeic and older animals (3-6 months), respectively and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that gastrointestinal helminthic, Eimeria species and C. parvum infections are widely distributed in small stock and bovine calves and are characterized by gastroenteritis.  These may lead to mortality in acute cases and sub-optimal performance in subclinical infections. Therefore livestock farmers need to be educated on the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism on animal productivity and appropriate control and prevention strategies based on epidemiological observations. They should be encouraged to adopt good animal husbandry practices. Animal handlers and immuno-deficient persons may be sensitized on the potential risks of acquisition of cryptosporidiosis by working with infected animals.

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