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Using Botswana as a case study this paper demonstrates the relationship between theology and the temporal order in post-independence sub-Saharan Africa which continues to stir controversies among Christians and non-Christians alike. It is evident that many Africans and Christians in the post-colonial era are faced with serious socio-economic and political challenges in the form of landlessness, homelessness, subjection to undemocratic systems, violation of human rights, and the ‘captivity of the Church’. The latter refers to the operations of the Church as a morally upright institution that is supposed to promote social justice but has been held hostage by its leadership. Generally, these challenges deny many Africans social justice. This paper argues that all these challenges can best be understood, interpreted, and addressed through Contextual Theological approaches.