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Japan’s involvement in Africa’s development became more pronounced after it co-organised the Tokyo International Conference on African Development in 1993. The mineral-rich and politically stable Botswana offers natural resources and business opportunities to Japan which is not endowed with mineral wealth but is a major global economic power. The Japanese embassy in Gaborone assisted Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation to establish a Remote Sensing Centre in Lobatse, Botswana. This centre has signed memorandum of understandings with all Southern African countries to explore minerals. Japan also needs support from African countries as it campaigns to be a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Botswana receives Japanese Offi cial Development Assistance loans and grants. In the education sector, the relations became more pronounced when Japan extended its prestigious government scholarship to Botswana in 2005. The paper examines the Botswana-Japan relations as Botswana celebrates 50 years of Independence in 2016.